Light Refreshment

The rising sophistication of emergency lighting methods signifies that in addition to being an important a part of a building’s life security infrastructure they will additionally get financial savings and reduce CO2 emissions thanks to the benefits clever LED-based options with superior battery technology have over traditional methods.
Anyone who has had the misfortune of being in an unfamiliar building when a hearth alarm is activated or a major lighting failure has occurred will understand the true value of an emergency lighting system. Although we often take these acquainted green and white signs as a right, emergency lighting’s position, as part of an general life safety system, should by no means be underestimated. Recent years have witnessed important developments within the know-how deployed in these techniques, with the result that they now provide a level of intelligence that mixes energy efficiency with reliability and ease-of-use.
Bad Behaviour
The way during which we use energy is constantly within the spotlight and if additional proof was required of the necessity for all of us to address our behaviour it came in a 2013 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It said that scientists are 95 p.c certain that we are the ‘dominant cause’ of world warming because the Fifties.
This might not come as much of a shock. However, via higher consciousness of the consequences of CO2, combined with the monetary implications of rising utility payments, organisations are more keen and in a position than ever to make use of energy properly. Growing laws and regulation means that companies all around the world are implementing energy reduction measures. The focus is often on adopting renewable power technologies such as photo voltaic photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and floor and air supply warmth pumps as ways to generate power, while others are utilizing building management techniques (BMS) to gain a holistic view of their power use and establish ways to decrease their consumption.
However, the stress is on to do even more, which is why constructing owners and managers are having to drill down and have a look at particular person parts of their building companies infrastructures to see whether there any additional savings can be made.
Light Years Ahead
Modern emergency lighting systems provide the likelihood for important energy and cost savings. This is due to two key elements – the use of gentle emitting diode (LED) based mostly lighting and advanced battery know-how.
Traditional emergency lighting methods utilise crude nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride or lead acid batteries. They drive the centrally operated system by regularly charging, discharging slightly and then recharging – a process that uses unnecessary quantities of vitality and shortly decreases the lifecycle of the battery. It implies that battery life is restricted to between one and four years, dependent upon the appliance.
State-of-the-art clever technology, nevertheless, utilises solely the quantity of energy needed to fully cost the emergency lighting batteries, after which shuts the battery down until an emergency situation occurs. This avoids degradation, prolongs life and reduces power consumption. Some techniques are also available with luminaires which are geared up with integral batteries permitting continued operation for a minimal of three hours, even in circumstances where the control panel or power cables are damaged. Maintained luminaires may be powered immediately from the road so as to not have an result on any battery capacity therefore leaving the batteries in an “always ready” state.
So what sort of energy financial savings may be made as a result? It is estimated that intelligent battery methods use between five and ten percent vitality of that a conventional battery system would use. Consider bigger installations of as much as 5,000 luminaires – which are not uncommon in hospitals, for instance – and the savings quickly become obvious.
Bright Spark
It is estimated that lighting accounts for greater than 19 percent of the world’s complete electricity consumption. According to Green LED Solutions, if solely half of worldwide lighting was converted to LED by 2025, energy use would be reduce by 120GW, saving £66 billion a yr and lowering CO2 emissions from power vegetation by 350Mt over the identical interval.
LED lighting has seen fast adoption and the global market was value $25.four billion in 2013, according to a Digitimes Research Special Report. LED expertise is each price efficient and environmentally friendly, making it a greener different to other systems which are at present obtainable and permitting operating prices to be kept to a minimum with out compromising effectivity.
LED expertise is now being utilized in emergency lighting techniques and these new luminaires offer some impressive savings. For occasion, they eat lower than 0.5W, while an identical 8W fluorescent gentle exit luminaire will use approximately 12W. These methods also include further vitality saving features, including signage that’s connected through low voltage 40V cabling, which is powered and configured on the same loop by way of a single panel, giving high ranges of control by way of an automatic system.
Testing Times
All emergency lighting systems must be tested on a monthly foundation in compliance with BS EN 50172. The check itself often entails flicking a guide change, which interrupts the facility provide to the luminaire, so that it illuminates. A full report sheet must be maintained for each emergency luminaire and entered into a logbook, which must be out there for inspection by the authorities at any time. Failure to supply full check information may find yourself in legal motion and closure of the building, and if the emergency lighting is defective, the insurance policy for the building may be invalid.
On the surface this all appears reasonable and fulfils the necessities of the Standard, however, the testing course of itself is flawed and doesn’t essentially result in a protected and totally functional system. All it does is examine that the system works for a quantity of seconds when the manual change is operated – what happens if the system fails 5 minutes after the test? It is not going to be retested for an additional month, so may go away a building’s occupants vulnerable within the meantime.
Also, it does not check just for how long the luminaires will keep on and whether the battery has sufficient energy to take care of operation for the interval specified within the related standards. The time required to evacuate the premises is dependent upon its size and complexity. The period itself depends not only on evacuation time but additionally on whether or not the premises are evacuated immediately the facility and regular lighting fails and/or are reoccupied instantly the provision is restored.
BS EN 50172 states the minimum period of an emergency lighting system as one hour. However, a minimal period of three hours must be used for emergency lighting if the premises are not evacuated instantly, as within the case of sleeping lodging, for instance, or if the premises might be reoccupied immediately the supply is restored with out waiting for the batteries to be recharged. It must also be famous that to adjust to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) a hundred and one Life Safety Code, emergency lights are required to remain lit for 90 minutes.
Modern emergency lighting control panels continuously monitor and check functionality in actual time. They can also be pre-programmed to hold out specific monthly, six monthly and annual checks and it’s also attainable to set operational parameters as a lot as alert when batteries are at 85 p.c capacity, providing a excessive level of reassurance that the system will work correctly underneath all circumstances.
FACTS OF THE MATTER
Lighting consumes 19 p.c of all electricity on the planet.
The first LED gadget was crafted in 1907 by Captain H J Round, a British radio expertise pioneer and a personal assistant to Guglielmo Marconi.
Nick Holonyak Jr is taken into account ‘the father of the fashionable LED’. In 1962, whereas working at General Electric, he developed the primary practically functional visible spectrum LED device for industrial use.
In 2009, a typical 13W LED lamp emitted 450-650 lumens, which is equal to a normal 40W incandescent bulb. เกจวัดแรงดัน have become more environment friendly, in order that now a 6W LED can simply obtain the same outcomes.
LEDs produce an extended service life of between 50,000 hours and 100,000 hours. This compares with 2,000-5,000 hours for a halogen bulb and 8,000 hours to 15,000 hours for a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL).
Unlike CFLs LEDs do not comprise mercury and may be more safely disposed of.
LEDs emit no ultraviolet radiation (UV) or infrared (IR), which makes them excellent to illuminate costly objects such as images, collections, paintings etc.
LEDs produce more light than heat, which makes them the safest form of lighting and reduces the risk of fires.
Right Place, Right Time
Evacuation is often hindered by a lack of detailed information of the internal connectivity of the constructing space, together with confusing and poorly thought out instructions. Studies have also shown that in these conditions occupants often make use of acquainted routes – usually utilizing the exit through which they entered the building. Even more worryingly, research from the University of Greenwich, as part of its examine referred to as Human Behaviour in Fire Network (HUBFIN), discovered that solely 38 % of individuals see passive signage in an emergency. This is a frightening statistic and only serves to spotlight the significance of siting an emergency lighting system in a means that can information folks to a safe location in the event of a mains lighting failure.
BS EN 50172 offers guidance on the positioning of luminaires, offers a minimal standard that ought to be applied and provides steerage on specific hazards and factors of emphasis that need to be accounted for. Points of emphasis are mandatory areas the place lighting should highlight particular hazards, security equipment and signs. These embody areas close to stairs, near modifications of degree, at each change of path, close to firefighting gear and handbook call points, outside and near to every ultimate exit, first assist points, at exit doors, and close to safety indicators.
Signs are either internally of externally illuminated and the utmost viewing distances for internally illuminated indicators is 200 occasions the panel height, and one hundred occasions the panel peak for externally illuminated indicators. Luminaires should supply 1Lux of output in escape routes and 0.5Lux in open areas. Emergency lighting must also be positioned in such a way to ensure that individuals are free from disability glare, which may stop obstructions or signs from being correctly seen.
It is value remembering that Industry Committee for Emergency Lighting (ICEL) approved merchandise are independently examined and meet the current product and application standards. Therefore, deciding on merchandise with ICEL approval will provide reassurance of compliance.
Look to the Future
The issues with passive signage are clear from the University of Greenwich’s HUBFIN research, which is why the integration of fire detection and emergency lighting systems is the next step in including intelligence and higher effectiveness to a life safety infrastructure.
A conventional emergency lighting system doesn’t permit signs to be ‘shut off’, which may allow people to unwittingly travel into the trail of danger. In places corresponding to hospitals and care properties, the place folks typically have restricted mobility, time is of the essence and must not be wasted by having to decipher probably the most applicable escape route.
By integrating a fire detection system with emergency lighting, and by figuring out the place a hearth is taking place, the right route could be configured and communicated. For instance, by responding to information despatched from the hearth detectors it’s attainable to put a pink ‘X’ on particular emergency luminaires, which signals to individuals to not exit by way of that particular route. This may additionally be synchronised with the present PA/VA system, adding another level of safety.
Not solely does integration make good sense from a safety perspective, it has a variety of value saving and environmental advantages. It is estimated that it could scale back the entire system’s wiring content material by 75 %, as there could be only one loop with both functions.
Feature Packed
A accurately specified, installed and maintained emergency lighting system is essential in order to give occupants a means of evacuating a building safely within the event of a mains lighting failure, or if required, a fire. The regulations, requirements and steering on this subject are comprehensive and the superior LED lighting and battery expertise that’s now obtainable combines reliability, performance and value with another way to save power.
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